By Marjorie Munsterberg

Writing About Art


  1. T.E. Hulme, “Romanticism and Classicism,” Speculations on the Humanism and the Philosophy of Art (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1958), 132-3.
  2. Stephen A. Wainwright, Axis and Circumference. The Cylindrical Shapes of Plants and Animals (Cambridge, MA and London: Harvard University Press, 1988), 7.
  3. Joshua C. Taylor, Learning to Look. A Handbook for the Visual Arts, 2nd ed. (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1981).
  4. William Strunk, Jr. and E.B. White, The Elements of Style (New York: Macmillan, 1959).  The 4th edition, published in 2000, has a foreword by Roger Angell.
  5. Marilyn Stokstad, Art. A Brief History, 3rd ed. (Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson/Prentice-Hall, 2007), fig. 26, p. 16, illustrates one such reconstruction of the frieze of the Parthenon.
  6. Stokstad, 349.
  7. James Cahill, Parting at the Shore: Chinese Painting of the Early and Middle Ming Dynasty, 1368-1580 (New York and Tokyo: John Weatherhill, 1978), 6-7.
  8. David Rosand, “Proclaiming Flesh,” Times Literary Supplement (17 February 1984), 167.
  9. Ruth Webb, “Ekphrasis,” in Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, (accessed August 22, 2008).
  10. One such painting, Sandro Botticelli’s Calumny of Apelles (Uffizi, Florence), is discussed and illustrated in Webb, “Ekphrasis,” Section 4.
  11. Robert Langbaum, The Poetry of Experience. The Dramatic Monologue in Modern Literary Tradition (New York: W.W. Norton, 1957), 53-4.
  12. John Ruskin, Modern Painters in The Complete Works of John Ruskin (Library Edition), eds. E.T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn (London: George Allen, 1903-1912), 3:571-2.
  13. Elizabeth K. Helsinger, Ruskin and the Art of the Beholder (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982), 180-2 and passim.
  14. William Hazlitt, Critical Papers in Art (London: Macmillan and Co., 1904), 124 (rpt., Royal Academy review, orig. publ. Fraser’s Magazine, June 1840).
  15. Robert Rosenblum, Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1967), 164.
  16. Robert Rosenblum and H.W. Janson, 19th-Century Art, rev. ed (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005), 249-50.
  17. A full study of this subject can be found in Beverly H. Twitchell, Cézanne and Formalism in Bloomsbury. Studies in the Fine Arts: Criticism, No. 20 (Ann Arbor, MI.: U.M.I. Research Press, 1987).
  18. Elizabeth Gilmore Holt, ed., A Documentary History of Art (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1958), 2:176-7 and 184.
  19. Taylor, 63.
  20. Roger Fry, “An Essay in Aesthetics” in Vision and Design (orig. publ. 1920; rpt. New York: New American Library, 1974),16-38.
  21. Roger Fry, Cézanne. A Study of His Development (orig. publ. 1927; rpt. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1968).
  22. Quoted by Alfred Werner, “Introduction,” Fry, Cézanne, n.p.
  23. Fry, Cézanne, 42.
  24. Fry, Cézanne, 45.
  25. Fry, Cézanne, 47-8.
  26. Fry, Cézanne, 50-1.
  27. Fry, Cézanne, 51.
  28. Ellen H. Johnson, Modern Art and the Object. A Century of Changing Attitudes, rev.ed. (New York: Icon Editions, 1995), 133-4.
  29. Taylor, 88-90.
  30. Rudolf Arnheim, Art and Visual Perception. Psychology of the Creative Eye (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1954).
  31. Rudolf Arnheim, Visual Thinking (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1969) and The Power of the Center. A Study of Composition in the Visual Arts (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1982).
  32. Arnheim, Center, 71.
  33. Arnheim, Center, 84.
  34. Arnheim, Center, 87.
  35. Berel Lang, "Looking for the Styleme," in The Concept of Style, ed. Berel Lang, rev. ed. (Ithaca, NY:  Cornell University Press, 1987), 182.
  36. J.J. Pollitt, The Art of Greece, 1400-31 B.C. Sources and Documents in the History of Art Series (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1965), xvi.
  37. A fascinating analysis of Morelli’s method in its contemporary context can be found in Carlo Ginzburg, “Morelli, Freud and Sherlock Holmes: Clues and Scientific Method,” History Workshop. A Journal of Socialist Historians 9 (Spring 1980): 5-36.
  38. For a discussion of traditional connoisseurship and some recent changes in the methods used, see Leonard J. Slatkes, “Review of Rembrandt Research Project. A Corpus of Rembrandt Paintings, 1625-1631, by J. Bruyn, B. Haak, S.H. Levie, P.J.J. van Thiel, and E. Van der Wettering (The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1982),” Art Bulletin LXXI (1989): 139-44.
  39. Arthur K. Wheelock, Jr., Jan Vermeer, rev. ed. (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 2004), 45-6. A full account of the forgeries can be found in Jonathan Lopez, The Man Who Made Vermeers. Unvarnishing the Legend of Master Forger Han van Meegeren (New York: Harcourt, Inc. 2008).
  40. Robert L. Herbert, “Method and Meaning in Monet,” Art in America 67 (September 1979): 90.
  41. Herbert, 92.
  42. Herbert, 97.
  43. David Irwin, ed., Winckelmann. Writings on Art (New York: Phaidon Press, 1972), 4-5 and 53-4.
  44. Alex Potts, “Winckelmann, Johann Joachim,” in Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, (accessed August 22, 2008).
  45. Heinrich Wölfflin, Principles of Art History. The Problem of the Development of Style in Later Art, trans. M.D. Hottinger (orig. publ. 1915; New York: Dover Publications, 1960), 6.
  46. Wölfflin, 13.
  47. Wölfflin, 14.
  48. See, for example, “painterly” listed as a term of stylistic analysis in Stokstad, xxviii.
  49. Wölfflin, 15-6.
  50. Wölfflin, 56-8.
  51. Wölfflin, 21.
  52. Pollitt, ix-xii.
  53. Julian Kliemann and Antonio Manno, “Vasari. III,” in Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online, (accessed August 22, 2008).
  54. See, for example, Stokstad, 515.
  55. John Berger, Ways of Seeing (New York: Penguin Books, 1972), 27-8.
  56. Judy Sund, Van Gogh. Art & Ideas Series (New York: Phaidon Press, 2002), 295-7.
  57. Ann Sutherland Harris and Judith W. Mann, “Artemisia Gentileschi,” in Grove Art Online. Oxford Art Online (accessed August 22, 2008).
  58. Mary D. Garrard, Artemisia Gentileschi: the Image of the Female Hero in Italian Baroque Art (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1989), quoted in Griselda Pollock, Differencing the Canon. Feminist Desire and the Writing of Art’s Histories (London and New York: Routledge, 1999), 106.
  59. Pollock, 114.
  60. Leo Steinberg, “The Line of Fate in Michelangelo’s Painting,” in The Language of Images, ed. W.J.T. Mitchell (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1980), 96-7.
  61. Steinberg, 85-6.
  62. Erwin Panofsky, Early Netherlandish Painting. Its Origin and Character (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 1953), 1:142-3.
  63. Panofsky, 1:143. For a summary of the recent scholarship about the Mérode Altarpiece, especially as it relates to Panofsky's interpretation of it, see Bernhard Ridderbos, "Objects and Questions" in Bernhard Ridderbos, Anne van Buren, and Henk van Veen, eds., Early Netherlandish Paintings. Rediscovery, Reception, and Research, tr. Andrew McCormick and Anne van Buren (Los Angeles: Getty Publications, 2005), 16-23.
  64. Panofsky, 1:201.
  65. Panofsky, 1:203.
  66. For a discussion of the painting and interpretations of it, see Ridderbos, 59-77.
  67. Martin Kemp, Behind the Picture. Art and Evidence in the Italian Renaissance (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1997), 222-3.
  68. Michael Camille, Image on the Edge. The Margins of Medieval Art (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 9.
  69. Camille, 11-2.
  70. Camille, 12-3.
  71. Camille, 13-4.
  72. Camille, 52-3.
  73. John House, Pierre-Auguste Renoir. La Promenade (Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Museum, 1997), 1-2.
  74. House, 1.
  75. House, 78.
  76. House, 79.
  77. One survey of different approaches used by art historians is Laurie Schneider Adams, The Methodologies of Art. An Introduction (New York:  HarperCollins, 1996). 
  78. Millard Meiss, Painting in Florence and Siena after the Black Death. The Arts, Religion and Society in the Mid-Fourteenth Century (orig. publ. 1951; rpt. New York: Harper & Row, 1973), xi.
  79. Meiss, 65.
  80. Meiss, 70.
  81. Meiss, 74.
  82. Meiss, 78-9.
  83. Michael Baxandall, Painting and Experience in Fifteenth-Century Italy. A Primer in the Social History of Pictorial Style (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1972), 1.
  84. Baxandall, 40.
  85. Baxandall, 40-56.
  86. Baxandall, 70; general discussion of the topic, 56-70.
  87. Baxandall, 71-108.
  88. Baxandall, 118-50.
  89. Baxandall, 152.
  90. John Barrell, The Dark Side of the English Landscape. The Rural Poor in English Painting 1730-1840 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980), 1.
  91. Barrell, 5.
  92. Wheelock, 98.
  93. Simon Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches. An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in the Golden Age (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), 56-7.
  94. Svetlana Alpers, The Art of Describing. Dutch Art of the Seventeenth Century (Chicago and London:  University of Chicago Press, 1983), Introduction, xxv. 
  95. Alpers, 119-23.
  96. Frank Willett, African Art. An Introduction (New York: Thames and Hudson, 1985), 143.
  97. Willett, 152-3.
  98. Quoted in Willett, 212-3.
  99. Roger Fry, Last Lectures, intro. Kenneth Clark (orig. publ. 1939; Boston: Beacon Books, 1962), 83.
  100. Fry, Last Lectures, 77-8.
  101. Meyer Schapiro, “Nature of Abstract Art” in Modern Art. 19th & 20th Centuries. Selected Papers (New York: George Braziller, 1978), 200-1.
  102. Kenneth Clark, The Nude. A Study in Ideal Form (New York: Pantheon Books, published for the Bollingen Foundation, 1956), 1.
  103. Clark, 97-8.
  104. Clark, 101.
  105. Lilian Zirpolo, “Botticelli’s Primavera. A Lesson for the Bride” in The Expanding Discourse. Feminism and Art History, eds. Norma Broude and Mary D. Garrard (New York: HarperCollins, 1992), 103-4.
  106. Zirpolo, 105-7.
  107. Roger Fry, Last Lectures, 18-20.